Birth of a President, Sarcophagus of a Pharaoh and More Historical Events in January
Ohio History in January
“Idol of Ohio”
On January 29, 1843, William McKinley was born in Niles, Ohio. McKinley spent his childhood living in northeast Ohio. Before the Civil War broke out in 1861, McKinley spent a brief time teaching at a country school. During the war he enlisted as a private in the 23rd Ohio Volunteer Infantry and by the end of the war he had risen to the rank of Brevet Major of Volunteers on the staff of Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes. Once the war was over McKinley studied law before opening a firm in Canton, Ohio. Through his work as a lawyer, he became well-known and liked with the local Republican Party. In 1876, the 34-year-old McKinley won a seat in Congress, and would go on to have an illustrious political career, earning the nickname “Idol of Ohio” in the process. William McKinley was elected the 25th President of the United States in 1897, and served in this position until 1901 when he was assassinated by an anarchist in Buffalo, NY.
Research question (4th grade):
William McKinley was part of a tradition of presidential candidates from Ohio who used a “front porch campaign” to help win their election. What was a “front porch campaign”? How many candidates from Ohio used this strategy during their run for the presidency?
U.S. History in January
Presidential Proclomation No. 2537
In the months following the Imperial Japanese attack on the American naval base at Pearl Harbor in December 1941, there was a large increase of anti-Japanese sentiment in the United States. Persuaded by public opinion and poor advising from military personnel, many of whom believed that Japanese-American communities in the Western United States would become a threat to national security should Imperial Japan ever invade, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Presidential Proclamation No. 2537 on January 14, 1942. The proclamation required that all immigrants living in the U.S. who came from countries that were at war with the United States register with the U.S. Department of Justice. This proclamation also permitted the arrest and detention of any registered immigrants if they were caught in a restricted area, such as water treatment plants or shipping ports.
Presidential Proclamation No. 2537 would ultimately lead to the creation of Executive Order 9066 which was signed by President Roosevelt in February 1942. The order forced over a hundred thousand Japanese-Americans living in the Western United States into 10 separate internment camps located in the interior of the country. The people who were forced into internment had to sell their homes and business at low prices and were moved into poorly constructed facilities. The internment of Japanese-Americans continued until 1946, when the final camp was closed. It was not until 1988 that the U.S. government acknowledged the injustice of Executive Order 9066.
Related Research (9th-12th grades): Some Japanese-Americans fought against the legality of Executive Order 9066. Research the Supreme Court cases of Hirabayashi v. United States and Korematsu v. United States.
Discussion question (9th-12th grades): Imagine yourself as a non-Japanese American citizen in 1942, do you agree with President Roosevelt and his advisors that Japanese-American internment was a matter of national security? As a student living in the United States in 2017, do you still agree/disagree? What are your reasons for believing so?
World History in January
The Pharohs Curse Unleashed?
When archeologists discovered the sarcophagus of Pharaoh Tutankhamun on January 3, 1924 legend stated that a curse of bad luck and death would be put on all those who disturbed the Pharaoh’s mummy. This hex was widely reported on, but in reality an actual curse was never inscribed anywhere in the tomb. What archeologists did discover, however, was far more impressive than any fictitious curse.
Tutankhamun’s reign as Pharaoh, which began around 1333 B.C., was short lived, and only lasted about ten years. There are no written records of his final days as ruler, so Tutankhamun’s death is surrounded in mystery. There are many theories about how he died, but the most the prominent theory is that his death was possibly caused by an infection from a broken bone in his leg.
After his death, in accordance with the traditions of the ancient Egyptian religion, Tutankhamun was mummified. The ancient Egyptians believed that when a person died their soul left their body and would return once they were buried. In order for the soul to recognize the correct body the corpse had to be preserved. The process of mummification was intricate and took months to complete, and once the procedure was finished the mummy was sealed inside of a tomb with all of the person’s worldly possessions. Today, Tutankhamun’s resting place is described as one of the best preserved tombs in the Valley of Kings in Egypt.
Research Question (6th Grade): The ancient Egyptians were not the only culture in history to practice mummification. Research what other cultures from around the world practiced mummification. Compare and contrast the purpose and process of these other cultures to that of the ancient Egyptians.