Census Records

Federal Census Returns for the State of Ohio

The state government of Ohio did not create a state sponsored census. 

A Federal Government Census for the state of Ohio was created every ten years beginning in 1810. Most of the 1810 Census was destroyed during the War of 1812. The Auditor of the State's Tax Duplicates 1801-1838 can be used as an alternative source of information.

The 1890 Federal Census records were destroyed in Washington DC. The Special Veteran's Census (1890) can be used as an alternative source.

The Ohio History Connection holds:

  • Federal Census Returns for the State of Ohio 1820-1880 and 1900-1930.
  • Indexes to Federal Census records from 1820-1880 and 1900-1920.
  • Census holdings are listed by county in the Online Collection Catalog. Each county record lists the roll numbers available in the microfilm room. Search the catalog by keyword title for Federal Census for _____ County. (Fill the blank with the name of the county needed.)

Mortality Census Schedules for Ohio

Mortality Schedules include the names of persons who died one year prior to June 1 of the year in which the schedules were compiled.

The Ohio History Connection holds:

  • 1850 -- for counties whose names begin with the letters H-W ONLY
  • 1860 -- all counties
  • 1880 -- for counties whose names begin with the letters A-Geauga ONLY
  • Only 1850 is indexed

Quadrennial Enumerations

The state of Ohio did not produce a state census. The individual counties kept records called Quadrennial Enumerations. The Quadrennial Enumerations are sometimes mistakenly termed census records by genealogical source books. Quadrennial Enumerations were produced by either the county auditor or the clerk of court of common pleas. They list males over the age of 21, showing address, race, occupation, and whether a freeholder of land.

Enumerations were used to determine voting districts, and were taken every four years from 1803 to 1911.

Prior to 1863 enumerations recorded only white males.

Quadrennial Enumerations are arranged within volumes by township and then by inhabitant's name.

The Ohio History Connection holds:
  • OHS does not hold enumerations for every county, township, or time period. Our holdings may be found by searching the title field for Quadrennial Enumerations in our Online Collection Catalog.
  • Where a span of dates is indicated, the records exist for every FOURTH year therein.

Need More Information?
Please contact reference@ohiohistory.org with any questions.

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